A comparison between psychoanalysis and behaviorism

Early in the 20th century, psychological thinking was dominated by two philosophies: behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Behavioristic psychologistsstudy overt behaviors and believe that people are conditioned by rewards andpunishments to act in a certain manner. Behaviorists seek to manipulate humanbehavior through the use of appropriate reinforcements.

Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis

• Humanistic - emerged in reaction to both behaviorism andpsychoanalysis and is therefore known as the Third Force in thedevelopment of psychology. It is explicitly concerned with the humancontext of the development of the individual with an emphasis onsubjective meaning, a rejection of determinism, and a concern forpositive growth rather than pathology. It posits an inherent humancapacity to maximise potential, 'the self-actualing tendency'. The taskof Humanistic therapy is to create a relational environment where thistendency might flourish.

Behaviorism | Simply Psychology

Both behaviorism and psychoanalysis are regarded as dehumanizing by humanistic psychologists These three fields are what Maslow calls the "third force" in psychology. They are called a third force in psychology not because there are three fields, but because they constitute the third major approach in American psychology. Koch (1961) coined the term but used it in reference to psychology as a third force -- lying between science on the one hand and the humanities on the other hand (Severin, 1973, p.S). Maslow used the phrase "third force psychology" to refer to a new and contemporary branch of psychology which had successfully broken the bonds of institutionalized psychology. Behaviorism and psychoanalysis, the major forces in American psychology in the twentieth century (Goble, 1970), emphasized the materialistic, mechanistic, and animalistic side of humanity. Maslow and other third force psychologists, on the other hand, have claimed that man looks toward the future rather than the past, seeks goals rather than avoids unpleasantness, and learns by cognitive processes such as insight rather than by conditioning and reflexive responses.

Behaviorism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Two claimants to the psychological dominion are peculiarly belligerent, behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Behaviorism McDougall calls a bastard product. I view its parentage more charitably. It represents a legitimate protest against the anti-naturalism of the orthodox psychology which was so long in the saddle -- more precisely, against the neglect of the naturalistic axiom that the human organism, mind and all, from guts to cortex, and all its expressions from sigh to soliloquy, is root, stem, and blossom an instrument of behavior. In any meaningful sense substantially all American psychologists were long before 1912, which Watson makes the year of annunciation of the dispensation, renunciation of the error of previous ways, and denunciation of the rest of his brethren. Unfortunately the Knight of Behaviorism has set his lance at an untenanted windmill. The fallacy of the behaviorist's formula lies in the omitted terms with the result that, were he consistent, his cupboard would be as bare as Mother Hubbard's; he smuggles in his provender from stores which he ignores. He naively sets forth that under the of a falling apple a horse in the pasture by munching it; under the same a Newton by evolving the law of gravitation. The difference is said to be explained by the different habit-systems of physicist and horse, or by recalling that they were differently conditioned by their respective parents. Even that illustration is unduly complimentary to the explanatory value of the behaviorist's barren formula of stimulus and response. It is nearer to his level of solution to select as a parallel the philanthropic machine attached to the pillars in the subway, which to the stimulus of a copper cent responds with a block of chocolate or if stimulated in another vent to its reflexes responds with a stick of chewing gum, ignoring the while the part played in the result by both Mr. Wrigley and the designer of the machine.

Psychology is the science of behavior